Marijuana Health Studies

We are working diligently to provide scientific research to support what over 100,000 Canadians are saying about the benefits of medical marijuana.

Following are studies that discuss the science of marijuana regarding treatment of symptoms and illnesses and the associated positive and negative effects.


Adolescence

  • Cannabis dependence, withdrawal, and reinforcing effects among adolescents with conduct symptoms and substance use disorders.

    Crowley, T.J., Macdonald, M.J., Whitmore, E.A., Mikulich, S.K. Drug Alcohol Depend. 1998; 50: 27-37

  • Airway inflammation in young marijuana and tobacco smokers.

    Roth, M.D., Arora, A., Barsky, S.H., Kleerup, E.C., Simmons, M., Tashkin, D.P. Am.J.Respir.Crit Care Med, 1998; 157(3 Pt 1): 928-937

  • A longitudinal study of the effects of tobacco and cannabis exposure on lung function in young adults.

    Taylor, D.R., Fergusson, D.M., Milne, B.J., Horwood, L.J., Moffitt, T.E., Sears, M.R., Poulton, R. Addiction 2002; 97: 1055-1061

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Alzheimer's

  • Effects of dronabinol on anorexia and disturbed behavior in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    Volicer, L., Stelly, M., Morris, J., McLaughlin, J., Volicer, B.J. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 1997; 12: 913-919

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Analgesic Effects

See Pain

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Angina

  • Effect of marihuana and placebo-marihuana smoking angina pectoris.

    Aronow, W.S., Cassidy, J. N.Engl.J.Med. 1974; 291: 65-67

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Anorexia

  • Effects of dronabinol on anorexia and disturbed behavior in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    Volicer, L., Stelly, M., Morris, J., McLaughlin, J., Volicer, B.J. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 1997; 12: 913-919

  • A double-blind trial of delta-9-THC in primary anorexia nervosa.

    Gross, H., Egbert, M.H., Faden, V.B., Godberg, S.C., Kaye, W.H., Caine, E.D., Hawks, R., Zinberg, N.E. J Clin Psychopharmacology, 1983; 3: 165-171

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Appetite Stimulant

  • Effects of smoked marijuana on food intake and body weight of humans living in a residential laboratory.

    Foltin, R.W., Fischman, M.W., Byrne, M.F. Appetite. 1988; 11: 1-14

  • Dronabinol enhancement of appetite in cancer patients.

    Wadleigh, R., Spaulding, G.M., Lumbersky, B. et al. Proc Am Soc Oncol. 1990; 9: 331

  • Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as an effective antidepressant and appetite-stimulating agent in advanced cancer patients.

    Regelson, W., Butler, J.R., Schulz, J., et al. In: Braude MC, Szara S, eds. The Pharmacology of Marihuana: A Monograph of the National Institute on Drug Abuse. New York: Raven Press; 1976; p 763-776

  • A phase II study of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol for appetite stimulation in cancer-associated anorexia.

    Nelson, K., Walsh, D., Deeter, P., Sheehan, F. J Palliative Care. 1994; 10: 14-18

  • Cannabinoids and appetite stimulation.

    Mattes, R.D., Engelman, K., Shaw, L.M., Elsohly, M.A. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1994; 49: 187-195

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Antiemetics

See Nausea

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Asthma

  • Acute effects of marihuana on airway dynamics in spontaneous and experimentally produced bronchial asthma.

    Tashkin, D.P., Shapiro, B.N.J., Frank, I.M. In The pharmacology of marihuana. eds. MC Braude, S Szara, Raven Press , New York, 1976

  • Bronchial effects of marihuana smoke in asthma.

    Vachon, L., Mikus, P., Morrisey, W., Fitzgerald, M., Gaenser, E. In The pharmacology of marihuana. eds. MC Braude, S Szara, Raven Press , New York, 1976

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Dosage

  • Concentration–effect relationship of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and prediction of psychotropic effects after smoking marihuana.

    Harder, S., Rietbrock, S. International Journal of Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1997; 35: 155-159

  • Relating blood concentrations of tetrahydrocannabinol and metabolites to pharmacologic effects and time of marijuana usage.

    Cone, E.J., Huestis, M.A. Ther Drug Monit. 1993; 15: 527-532.

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Driving

  • Effects of cannabis and alcohol on automobile driving and psychomotor tracking.

    Hansteen, R.W., Miller, R.D., Lonero, L., Reid, L.D., Jones, B. Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 1976; 282: 240-256

  • Marijuana, driving, and accident safety.

    Gieringer, D.H. J Psychoactive Drugs. 1988; 20: 93-101

  • Marijuana: On-road and driving-simulator studies.

    Smiley, A., H Kalant, W Corrigall, W hall, R Smart (eds), Health effects of cannabis. Centre for Addiction and mental Health, Toronto, 1999; p173-179

  • Cannabis and driving: a new perspective.

    O'Kane, C.J., Tutt, D.C., Bauer, L.A. Emerg Med (Fremantle) 2002; 14: 296-303

  • Marihuana and driving.

    Moskowitz, H. Accid Anal Prev. 1985; 17: 323-345

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Dependence and Tolerance

  • Cannabis dependence and tolerance production.

    Compton, D.R., Dewey, W.L., Martin, B.R. Adv Alcohol Substance Abuse. 1990; 9(1-2): 129-147

  • Cannabis dependence, withdrawal, and reinforcing effects among adolescents with conduct symptoms and substance use disorders.

    Crowley, T.J., Macdonald, M.J., Whitmore, E.A., Mikulich, S.K. Drug Alcohol Depend. 1998; 50: 27-37

  • Clinical studies of cannabis tolerance and dependence.

    Jones, R.T., Benowitz, N., Bachman, J. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1976; 282: 221-239

  • Tolerance to and dependence on psychotropic cannabinoids.

    Pertwee, R.G. In The biological bases of drug tolerance and dependence. Ed JA Pratt, Academic Press., London, 1991

  • A review of the published literature into cannabis withdrawal symptoms in human users.

    Smith, N.T. Addiction. 2002; 97: 621-632

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Dystonia

  • Randomised,double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess the potential of cannabinoid receptor stimulation in the treatment of dystonia.

    Fox, S.H., Kellett, M., Moore, A.P., Crossman, A.R., Brotchie, J.M. Mov Disord. 2002; 17: 145-149

  • Open label evaluation of cannabidiol in dystonic movement disorders.

    Consroe, P., Sandyk, R., Snider, S.R. Int J Neurosci. 1986; 30: 277-82

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Epilepsy

  • Chronic administration of cannabidiol to healthy volunteers and epileptic patients.

    Cunha, J.M., Carlini, E.A., Pereira, A.E., Ramos, O.L., Pimentel, C., Gagliardi, R., Sanvito, W.L., Lander, N., Mechoulam, R. Pharmacology. 1980; 2: 175-85

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Glaucoma

  • Cannabinoids in the treatment of glaucoma.

    Jarvinen, T., Pate, D.W., Laine, K. Pharmacol Ther 2002; 95: 203-220

  • Marijuana smoking vs cannabinoids for glaucoma therapy.

    Green, K. Arch Ophthalmol 1998; 111: 1433-1437

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Health Effects

  • Cannabis use in adolescence and risk for adult psychosis: longitudinal prospective study.

    Arseneault, L., Cannon, M., Poulton, R., Murray, R., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T.E. BMJ. 2002; 325: 1212-1213

  • Marihuana smoking. Cardiovascular effects in man and possible mechanisms.

    Beaconsfield, P., Ginsburg, J., Rainsbury, R. N Engl J Med. 1972; 287: 209-212

  • Marijuana use and increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.

    Zhang, Z.F., Morgenstern, H., Spitz, M.R., Tashkin, D.P., Yu, G.P., Marshall, J.R., Hsu, T.C., Schantz, S.P. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1999; 8: 1071-1078

  • Self reported cannabis use as a risk factor for schizophrenia in Swedish conscripts of 1969: historical cohort study.

    Zammit, S., Allebeck, P., Andreasson, S., Lundberg, I., Lewis, G. BMJ 2002; 325: 1199-1201

  • Cannabis and psychiatric syndrome.

    Allebeck, P. In Marihuana and Medicine. Eds. GG Nahas, KM Sutin, D Harvey, S Agurell, Humana Press, Totowa, N.J., 1999; p 665-669

  • Cardiovascular consequences of marijuana use.

    Sidney, S. J Clin Pharmacol 2002; Nov; 42 (11 Suppl): 64S-70S

  • Marijuana use and cancer incidence (California, United States).

    Sidney, S., Quesenberry Jr, C.P., Friedman, G.D., Tekawa, I.S. Cancer Causes Control. 1997; 8: 722-728

  • Psychiatric effects of cannabis.

    Johns, A. Br J Psychiatry. 2001; 178: 116-122

  • Cardiovascular system effects of marijuana.

    Jones, R.T. J Clin Pharmacol 2002; 2 (11 Suppl): 58S-63S

  • Effects of cannabis on the cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems.

    Chesher, G., Hall, W. The health effects of cannabis, eds H Kalant, W Corrigall, W. Hall. R Smart, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, 1999; p 437-458

  • Acute and residual effects of marijuana in humans.

    Fant, R.V., Heishman, S.J., Bunker, E.B., Pickworth, W.B. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1998; 60: 777-784

  • Adverse effects of cannabis.

    Hall, W., Solowij, N. Lancet. 1998; 352: 1611-1616

  • Cannabinoids and the immune system.

    Klein, T. Pain Res Management, 2001; 6: 95-101

  • Long-term effects of cannabis on the central nervous system.

    Solowij, N. In “the Health effects of cannabis”, 1999; p 195-265

  • Orthostatic hypotension after delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol marihuana inhalation.

    Merritt, J.C., Cook, C.E., Davis, K.H. Ophthalmic Res. 1982; 14: 124-128

  • Cardiovascular effects of marihuana and cannabinoids.

    Trouve, R., Nahas, G. In Marihuana and Medicine, Assessing the science base. Eds. GG Nahas, KM Sutin, D Harvey, S Agurell, Humana Press, Totowa, N.J., 1999; p 291-304

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HIV / Aids

  • Dronabinol as a treatment for anorexia associated with weight loss in patients with AIDS.

    Beal, J.A., Olson, R., Laubenstein, L., Morales, J.O., Bellman, P., Yangco, B., Lefkowitz, L., Plasse, T.F., Shepard, K.V. J Pain Symptom Management, 1995; 10: 89-97

  • Marijuana and cannabinoids: effects on infections, immunity, and AIDS.

    Cabral, G. J. Cannabis Ther, 2001; 1: 61-85

  • Pulmonary aspergillosis in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    Denning, D.W., Follansbee, S.E., Scolaro, M., Norris, S., Edelstein, H., Stevens, D. N Engl J 1991; 324: 654-662

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Huntington's Disease

  • Controlled clinical trial of cannabidiol in Huntington's disease.

    Consroe, P., Laguna, J., Allender, J., Snider, S., Stern, L., Sandyk, R., Kennedy, Schram, K. Biochem Behav. 1991; 40: 701-708

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Multiple Sclerosis

  • The perceived effects of smoked cannabis on patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Consroe, P., Musty, R., Rein, J., Tillery, W., Pertwee, R. Eur Neurol 1997; 38(1): 44-48

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Nausea

  • Antiemetics in patients receiving chemotherapy for cancer: a randomized comparison of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and prochlorperazine.

    Sallan, S.E., Cronin, C., Zelen, M., Zinberg, N.E. New England Journal Medicine. 1980; 302: 135-138

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Neurological Diseases

  • Potential role of cannbinoids for therapy of neurological disorders.

    Consroe, P., Sandyk, R. In Marijuana/Cannabinoids: Neurobiology and Neurophysiology, eds. A Bartke and L Murphy, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1992 pp 459-524

  • Therapeutic potential of cannabinoids in neurological disorders.

    Consroe, P., Snider, S.R. R Mechoulam (ed.) Marijuana/Cannabinoids as therapeutic agents. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1986; 21-49

  • The role of cannabinoids in neurodegenerative diseases.

    Glass, M. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2001; 25: 743-65

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Neuropathic Pain

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Pain

  • Are cannabinoids an effective and safe treatment option in the management of pain? A qualitative systematic review.

    Campbell, F.A., Tramer, M.R., Carroll, D., Reynolds, D.J., Moore, R.A., McQuay, H.J. BMJ. 2001; 323: 13-16

  • The analgesic properties of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and codeine.

    Noyes Jr, R., Brunk, S.F., Avery, D.A., Canter, A.C. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1975; 18: 84-89

  • Analgesic effect of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol.

    Noyes Jr, R., Brunk, S.F., Baram, D.A., Canter, A. J Clin Pharmacol. 1975; 15: 139-143

  • Effect of a nitrogen analog of tetrahydrocannabinol on cancer pain.

    Staquet, M., Gantt, C., Machin, D. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1978; 23: 397-401

  • Effects of intravenous tetrahydrocannabinol on experimental and surgical pain. Psychological correlates of the analgesic response.

    Raft, D., Gregg, J., Ghia, J., Harris, L. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1977; 21: 26-33

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Parkinson's Disease

  • Cannabinoids reduce levodopa-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease: a pilot study.

    Sieradzan, K.A., Fox, S.H., Hill, M., Dick, J.P., Crossman, A.R., Brotchie, J.M. Neurology. 2001; 57: 2108-11

  • Marijuana for parkinsonian tremor.

    Frankel, J.P., Hughes, A., Lees, A.J., Stern, G.M. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1990; 53: 436

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Pharmokinetics

  • Pharmacokinetics of THC in inhaled and oral preparations.

    Huestis, M. Marihuana and Medicine. Eds GG Nahas, KM Sutin, D Harvey, S Agurell, Humana Press, 1999; p 105-116

  • Blood cannabinoids I. Absorption of THC and formation of 11-OH-THC and THCCOOH during and after smoking marijuana.

    Huestis, M.A., Henningfield, J.E., Cone, E.J. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 1992; 16: 276-282

  • Urinary excretion profiles of 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in humans after single smoked doses of marijuana.

    Huestis, M.A., Mitchell, J.M., Cone, E.J. Journal of Analytical Toxicology. 1996; 20: 441-452

  • Characterization of the absorption phase of marijuana smoking.

    Huestis, M.A., Sampson, A.H., Holicky, B.J., Henningfield, J.E., Cone, E.J. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1992; 52: 31-41

  • Prolonged apparent half-life of delta 1-tetrahydrocannabinol in plasma of chronic marijuana users.

    Johansson, E., Agurell, S., Hollister, L.E., Halldin, M.M. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1988; 40: 374-375

  • Characterization of cannabidiol-mediated cytochrome P450 inactivation.

    Bornheim, L.M., Everhart, E.T., Li, J., Correia, M.A. Biochem Pharmacol. 1993; 45: 1323-1331

  • Absorption, distribution and biotransformation of the cannabinoids.

    Harvey, D.J. Marihuana and Medicine. Eds GG Nahas, KM Sutin, D Harvey, S Agurell, 1999; 91-103

  • Acute and residual effects of marijuana: profiles of plasma THC levels, physiological, subjective, and performance measures.

    Heishman S.J., Huestis M.A., Henningfield J.E., Cone E.J. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1990; Nov; 37(3): 561-565

  • Physicochemical properties, solubility and protein binding of delta-9-THC

    Garrett, E.R., Hunt, C.A. . Journal Pharm Science, 1974; 63

  • Pharmacokinetics of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in dogs.

    Garrett, R., Hunt, C.A. Journal Pharm Science. 1977; 66: 395-407

  • Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of delta-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids with emphasis on man.

    Agurell, S., Halldin, M., Lindgren, J.E., Ohlsson, A., Widman, M., Gillespie, H., Hollister, L. Pharmacol Rev, 1986; 38: 21-43

  • The tetrahydrocannabinol and tetrahydrocannabinolic acid content of cannabis products.

    Baker, P.B., Taylor, B.J., Gough, T.A. J Pharm Pharmacol, 1981; p 33

  • Plasma protein binding of 7-hydroxy- 1-tetrahydrocannabinol: an active 1-tetrahydrocannabinol metabolite.

    Widman, M., Nilsson, I.M., Agurell, S., Borg, H., Granstrand, B. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1973; Jun;25(6):453-457

  • Binding of (+)- and (minus)-delta-1-tetrahydrocannabinols and (minus)-7-hydroxy-delta-1-tetrahydrocannabinol to blood cells and plasma proteins in man.

    Widman, M., Agurell, S., Ehrnebo, M., Jones, G. Journal Pharm Pharmacol. 1974; 26: 914-916

  • Binding of delta-1-tetrahydrocannabinol to human plasma proteins.

    Wahlqvist, M., Nilsson, I.M., Sandberg, F., Agurell, S. Biochem Pharmacol. 1970; Sep;19(9): 2579-84

  • The metabolism of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and related cannabinoids in man.

    Wall, M.E., Perez-Reyes, M. J Clin Pharmacol. 1981; 21(8-9 Suppl): 178S-189S

  • Metabolism, disposition, and kinetics of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in men and women.

    Wall, M.E., Sadler, B.M., Brine, D., Taylor, H., Perez-Reyes, M. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1983; 34: 352-63

  • Activity of delta-8- and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and related compounds in the mouse.

    Christensen, H.D., Freudenthal, R.I., Gidley, J.T., Rosenfeld, R., Boegli, G., Testino, L., Brine, D.R., Pitt, C.G., Wall, M.E. Science. 1971; 172: 165-167

  • Behavioral pharmacokinetics of marijuana.

    Barnett, G., Licko, V., Thompson, T. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1985; 85: 51-56

  • Biological disposition of tetrahydrocannabinols.

    Truitt Jr, E.B. Pharmacol.Rev. 1971; 23: 273-278

  • Behavioural and biochemical evidence for interactions between Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and nicotine.

    Valjent, E., Mitchell, J.M., Besson, M.J., Caboche, J., Maldonado, R. Br J Pharmacol. 2002; 135: 564-578

  • Plasma delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol concentrations and clinical effects after oral and intravenous administration and smoking.

    Ohlsson, A., Lindgren, J.E., Wahlen, A., Agurell, S., Hollister, L.E., Gillespie, H.K. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1980; 28: 409-416

  • Recent clinical experience with dronabinol.

    Plasse, T.F., Gorter, R.W., Krasnow, S.H., Lane, M., Shepard, K.V., Wadleigh, R.G. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1991; 40: 695-700

  • Intravenous injection in man of 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol and 11-OH- 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol..

    Perez-Reyes, M., Timmons, M.C., Lipton, M.A., Davis, K.H., Wall, M.E. Science. 1972; 177: 633-635

  • Marijuana smoking: factors that influence the bioavailability of tetrahydrocannabinol.

    Perez-Reyes, M. NIDA Res Monogr. 1990; 99: 42-62

  • Effects of tetrahydrocannabinol content on marijuana smoking behavior, subjective reports, and performance.

    Heishman, S.J., Stitzer, M.L., Yingling, J.E. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 1989; 34: 173-179

  • Chemistry and pharmacology of cannabis.

    Martin, B.R., Cone, E.J. In The health effects of cannabis”, eds H Kalant, W Corrigall, W. Hall. R Smart, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, 1999; p 21-68

  • Bypassing the first-pass effect for the therapeutic use of cannabinoids.

    Mattes, R.D., Shaw, L.M., Edling-Owens, J., Engelman, K., Elsohly, M.A. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1993; 44: 745-747

  • Cannabinoid testing: Forensic and analytical aspects.

    McBay, A.J. Lab management, 1985; 23: 36-41

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Pregnancy

  • Maternal marijuana use during lactation and infant development at one year

    Astley, S.J., Little, R.E. . Neurotoxicol Teratol 1990; 12: 161-168

  • The passage of 14C-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol into the milk of lactating squirrel monkeys.

    Chao, F.C., Green, D.E., Forrest, I.S., Kaplan, J.N., Winship-Ball, A., Braude, M. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol 1976; 15: 303-317

  • Effects of maternal marijuana and cocaine use on fetal growth.

    Zuckerman, B., Frank, D.A., Hingson, R., Amaro, H., Levenson, S.M., Kayne, H., Parker, S., Vinci, R., Aboagye, K., Fried, L.E. N Engl J Med. 1989; 320: 762-768

  • Maternal cannabis use in the sudden death syndrome.

    Scragg, R.K., Mitchell, E.A., Ford, R.P., Thompson, J.M., Taylor, B.J., Stewart, A.W. Acta Paediatr 2001; 90: 57-60

  • The impact of cocaine and marijuana use on low birth weight and preterm birth: a multicenter study.

    Shiono, P.H., Klebanoff, M.A., Nugent, R.P., Cotch, M.F., Wilkins, D.G., Rollins, D.E., Carey, J.C., Behrman, R.E. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1995; 172(1 Pt 1): 19-27

  • Conceptual issues in behavioral teratology and their application in determining long-term sequelae of prenatal marihuana exposure.

    Fried, P.A. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2002; 43: 81-102

  • Presence of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in human milk.

    Perez-Reyes, M., Wall, M.E. N Engl J Med 1982; 307: 819-820

  • Prenatal alcohol and marijuana exposure: effects on neuropsychological outcomes at 10 years.

    Richardson, G.A., Ryan, C., Willford, J., Day, N.L., Goldschmidt, L. Neurotoxicol Teratol 2002; 24: 309-320

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Schizophrenia / Psychosis

  • Cannabis and schizophrenia: results of a follow-up study.

    Caspari, D. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 1999; 249:45-49

  • Cannabis use and psychosis: a longitudinal population-based study.

    van Os, J., Bak, M., Hanssen, M., Bijl, R.V., de Graaf, R., Verdoux, H. Am J Epidemiol 2002; 156: 319-327

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Smoking Marijuana

  • Composition of a standard marihuana cigarette.

    Thomas, B.F., Parker, V.L., Caddell, L.W., Jones, L.V., Sabharwal, S.K., McDaniel, A.I., Keimowitz, A.R., Scheffler, N.M., Hart, E.D., Mitchell, J.M., Davis, K.H. Chapter 6 In Marihuana and medicine, eds, Nahas, G.G., Sutin, K.M., Harvey, D., Agurell, S. 1999

  • Importance of inhalation patterns in determining the effects of marijuana use.

    Peterson, RC. Lancet, 1979 (I)

  • Marijuana smoking: factors that influence the bioavailability of tetrahydrocannabinol.

    Perez-Reyes, M. NIDA Res Monogr. 1990; 99: 42-62

  • Subacute effects of heavy marihuana smoking on pulmonary function in healthy men.

    Tashkin, D.P., Shapiro, B.J., Lee, E.Y., Harper, C.E. New Eng J Med, 1976; 294:125-129

  • Respiratory effects of non-tobacco cigarettes.

    Bloom, J.W., Kaltenborn, W.T., Paoletti, P., Camilli, A., Lebowitz, M.D. Br. Med. J 1987; 295: 1516-1518

  • Stability, transfer and absorption of cannabinoid constituents of cannabis (Hashish) during smoking.

    Agurell, S., Leander, K. Acta Pharm Suecica, 1971; 8: 391-402

  • Kinetic study of smoking marijuana.

    Barnett, G., Chiang, C.W., Perez-Reyes, M., Owens, S.M. J Pharmacokinet Biopharm. 1982; 10: 495-506

  • Marihuana smoking, a possible carcinogen or co-carcinogen.

    Hyman, G. In Marihuana and Medicine. Eds. GG Nahas, KM Sutin, D Harvey, S Agurell, Humana Press, Totowa, N.J., 1999; p 289-290

  • Pulmonary hazards of smoking marihuana as compared to tobacco.

    Wu, T.-C., Tashkin, D.P., Djahed, B., Rose, J.E. New England Journal of Medicine, 1988; 318

  • Marihuana and the lung.

    Tashkin, D.P. In Marihuana and Medicine. Eds. GG Nahas, KM Sutin, D Harvey, S Agurell, Humana Press, Totowa, N.J., 1999; p 279-287

  • Respiratory and immunologic consequences of marijuana smoking.

    Tashkin, D.R., Baldwin, G.C., Sarafian, T., Dubinett, S., Roth, M.D. J Clin Pharmacol 2002; 42 (11 Suppl): 71S-81S

  • Respiratory symptoms and lung function in habitual heavy smokers of marijuana alone, smokers of marijuana and tobacco, smokers of tobacco alone, and nonsmokers.

    Tashkin, D.P., Coulson, A.H., Clark, V.A., Simmons, M., Bourque, L.B., Duann, S., Spivey, G.H., Gong H. Am Rev Respir Dis, 1987; 135: 209-216

  • Effects of smoked marijuana on heart rate, drug ratings and task performance by humans.

    Kelly, T.H., Foltin, R.W., Fischman, M.W. Behav Pharmacol.1993; 4: 167-178

  • Effects of tetrahydrocannabinol content on marijuana smoking behavior, subjective reports, and performance.

    Heishman, S.J., Stitzer, M.L., Yingling, J.E. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 1989; 34: 173-179

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Smoking Alternatives

  • Importance of inhalation patterns in determining the effects of marijuana use.

    Peterson, RC. Lancet, 1979 (I)

  • Marijuana-laced brownies: behavioral effects, physiologic effects, and urinalysis in humans following ingestion.

    Cone, E.J., Johnson, R.E., Paul, B.D., Mell, L.D., Mitchell, Journal of Analytical Toxicology. 1988; 12: 169-75

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Spasticity

  • Anticonvulsant effect of cannabidiol.

    Ames, F.R., Cridland, S. S Afr Med J. 1986; 69:14

  • The effect of orally and rectally administered delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol on spasticity: a pilot study with 2 patients.

    Brenneisen, R., Egli, A., Elsohly, M.A., Henn, V., Spiess, Y. International Journal Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1996; 34: 446-52

  • Double-blind clinical study of cannabidiol as a secondary anticonvulsant.

    Trembly, B., Sherman, M. Presented at Conference on cannabis and cannabinoids, Kolympari, 1990, cited in British Medical Association. Therapeutic uses of cannabis. Harwood Academic Publishers, Amsterdam, 1997; p51

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Tourette's Syndrome

  • Marijuana and Tourette's syndrome.

    Sandyk, R., Awerbuch, G. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1988; 8: 444-445

  • Influence of treatment of Tourette’s syndrome with delta-9-THC on neuropsychological performance.

    Muller-Vahl, K.R., Koblenz, A., Jobges, M., Kolbe, H., Emrich, H.M., Schneider, U. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2001; 34: 19-24

  • Treatment of Tourette's syndrome with Delta 9-THC: a randomized crossover trial.

    Muller-Vahl, K.R., Schneider, U., Koblenz, A., Jobges, M., Kolbe, H., Daldrup, T., Emrich, H.M. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2002; 35: 57-61

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Memory

  • Acute effects on human memory

    Miller, L.L. Marihuana and Medicine. Eds GG Nahas, KM Sutin, D Harvey, S Agurell, Ch 15. pp 227-231

  • Does marijuana use cause long-term cognitive deficits?

    Solowij, N., Stephens, R., Roffman, R.A., Babor, T. JAMA. 2002; 287: 2653-2654

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Marijuana Calculator

To accurately measure the quantity of marijuana your MMAR cultivation and possession allowance permits, use this handy calculator to ensure you are growing the correct quantity to meet your growing license limits. Enter your daily gram prescription and let the calculator do the rest.

Daily Grams Prescribed
Growing Environment
Indoor Plants:
Outdoor Plants:
Grams in Storage:
Monthly Perscription: